Color

EN: Color

Arta

See typographic color.
Adobe Glossary of typographic terms

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Color balance

(1) The manner in which color film reproduces a scene s colors under different types of lighting (daylight or tungsten). (2) The adjustment of colors in making color prints.

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Color balance:

The color balance of a film refers to the kind of light under which it will faithfully render color without the need for filters. Most films are daylight-balanced, which means that in daylight, or with a daylight balanced flash, colors will be true. A tungsten-balanced film can be used under certain types of artificial light to give true colors without filters or special printing techniques.

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Color break

The edge where two areas of color in an image meet.

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Color cast

An overall color that uniformly affects an entire image. An unwanted color cast can often be avoided by correctly setting a camera s white balance. A photograph with a color cast can sometimes be corrected using image-editing software.

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Color correction

The adjustment of colors to obtain a desired image.

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Color coupler:

A colorless substance contained in color film emulsions that, when exposed to chemical developing baths forms the color dyes that make up part of the layers of processed color films.

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Color gamut

(1) the definitive, complete range of colors in photography and image-editing that can be accurately represented in a particular situation, such as within a certain color space, or (2) the complete range of colors in an image.

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Color gradated filter

A filter that gradually changes color density across the filter’s field.

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Color negative

(Sometimes called Print film. ) Refers to film designed to produce a negative or reverse-color image that requires subsequent printing onto photo-sensitive material (generally paper used in making photographic prints) in order to view the true colors as a positive image.

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Color negative film:

A film that forms a photographic image in which light tones are rendered dark (and vice versa) and colors are reproduced as their complements (such as blue being recorded as yellow) all of reversed tones and colors are then reversed again in printing to form a positive record. Color negatives have an orange mask (an aid to printing), so may be difficult to read. Color negative films come in a range of speeds (ISO), or sensitivities to light. Each speed of film has its uses and characteristics that can be matched to particular shooting needs.

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Color reversal

Refers to film designed to make a positive image when exposed in the camera (slide film or transparency film). Light must be transmitted through such film in order to view it, whether it is lit from behind when viewing or the light is projected through the film’s image onto a viewing screen.

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Color sensitivity

Measurement of a film s response to different wavelengths of light, usually in reference to black and white film.

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Color temperature

The light spectrum is scientifically described in terms of color temperature, and is measured in degrees Kelvin (°K). Photographers use three standard light color temperatures. The first is called daylight for natural outdoors light (5500 degrees K), while the other two are incandescent (artificial light) color temperature standards: 3200 °K (tungsten studio lamps) and 3400 °K (photo lamps or photofloods).

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Color temperature:

The Kelvin scale, which is defined in degrees. It is used as a standard for balancing daylight films (approximately 5500 degrees K) and tungsten-balanced film (approximately 3200 degrees K.) Color conditions that vary from the standards will create a color cast in photographs made with these films, e.g., a daylight film used with artificial light will record with an amber cast a tungsten film used outdoors will record with a blue cast.

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Color

Components of visible light specturm as defined by mixture of red, green, blue. See also color space.

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Color

The perceived hue of an object, produced by the manner in which it reflects or emits light into the eye. Also, a substance, such as a dye, pigment, or paint, that imparts a hue.

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Color (moods and emotions)

Color plays a role in affecting viewer s moods and appetites. Tip: use a Light Hand.

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Color analyzer

A device for determining the correct printing light ratios for printing color negatives.

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Color background generator

Device to electronically create a color onscreen without using a camera, behind character-generated text, for example.

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Color balance

The perceptual appearance of a color image of film as a function of the ratio of exposures of each of the primary color records on the film.

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Color balance

How a color film reproducesthe colors of a scene. Color films are made to be exposed by light of a certain colorquality such as daylight or tungsten. Color balance also refers to the reproductionof colors in color prints, which can be altered during the printing process.

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Color balance

Overall color cast of an image. Unbalanced means grays do not appear neutral. Also: amounts of process colors to simulate original scene s or photograph s colors.

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Color balance

The accuracy with which the colors in the image match those in the original scene.

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Color bar generator

An electronic device creating standard color bars as a test signal.

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Color bars

A standardized pattern of colors used to test cameras and other video equipment so they will reproduce chrominance and luminance information correctly.

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Color breakup

Image projection anomaly. Also called rainbow effect because looks like rainbow at edge of bright objects on screen. In sequential color systems -- single chip DLP projectors, some LCoS RPTVs -- results from updating color information at different locations on screen, caused by rapid object movement or rapid viewer eye movement. Example: red component of white object shows at different location on screen than blue as object moves rapidly, because color is displayed sequentially. Most noticeable with bright objects.

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Color calibration

A process by which the image source (digital camera or scanner), monitor and output (printer) are calibrated to use the same or similar color standard, i.e., Adobe RGB, sRGB, etc). This ensures that the image viewed on the monitor has the same range of colors as the image that is printed, and any adjustments made to the color of the image in the computer are accurately represented when the image is printed.

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Color cast

Unwanted color affecting entire image or portion of it.

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Color channel

An RGB image is comprised of three different color channels: red, green, and blue. Each channel acts as a layer that stores tonal information. All three channels combined create the colors in the digital image.

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Color consultant

A technical advisor with expertise in film stock and film developing, who provides advice for cinematographers and color timers.

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Color conversion filter

A filter that alters the color temperature of light to make it suitable for the film in use. It enables you to use daylight-type film indoors or tungsten-type film outdoors. .

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Color conversion, color correc

Matching the daylight or Tungsten balance of the film and lights through filtration or, with video, White Balance. Color can also be corrected during printing. Tip: Neutralizing off-color sources, such as dusk, is a technical and aesthetic call - not necessarily appropriate. See: Style and Consistency of Lighting.

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Color correct

To achieve desirable colors, adjust relationship among the process colors.

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Color correction

The altering of the color balance by modifying the ratio of the printing light values.

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Color correction

The process of correcting or enhancing the color of an image.

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Color correction

To correct or enhance the colors within an image.

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Color correction (digital colo

Process of adjusting the color and look of images in digital post-production. Digital color correction allows far more control than tradition color timing.

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Color cube

A three-dimensional diagram representing color space. There are different color cubes for different color spaces and color interpretations.

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Color decision list (cdl)

The American Society of Cinematographers has proposed a Color Decision List (ASC-CDL), a metadata interchange format. It is designed to make image colors appear the same regardless of where they are displayed, creating a consistency of look throughout the production process.

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Color decoder

Display device circuit separating color part of signal from luminance. If manufacturer sets to compensate for higher color temperature of overdriven displays, can effect picture quality.

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Color depth

The number of bits assigned to each pixel in the image and the number of colors that can be created from those bits. True Color uses 24 bits per pixel to render 16 million colors.

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Color depth

The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a piece of hardware or software. Color depth is sometimes referred to as bit depth because it is directly related to the number of bits used for each pixel. A 24-bit digital camera, for example, has a color depth of 2 (2 bits of color) to the 24th power, resulting in a dynamic range of 16,777,216 colors. Similarly, an inexpensive 8-bit color monitor can only reproduce a total of 256 colors, which is far less than the expansive range of color contained in the digital image files captured by almost all consumer digital cameras.

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Color difference signals

Component video signals representing parts of a picture. For example, R-Y and B-Y are color difference signals.

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Color distortion, coloring lig

Gels not only correct the color of light sources relative to one another or the film, they can also be used to distort light for dramatic or artistic purposes. Thus far, no permit is required. Video tip, see: White Balance.

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Color dynamics

Implies rich color, excellent definition, high contrast. Resulting from dynamic range/contrast ratios.

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Color field paintings

Paintings of large areas of color, typically with no strong contrasts of tone or obvious focus of attention.

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Color film

Carries one or more emulsions, sensitive to different colors, and forming corresponding dye colors during processing.

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Color film

Color film has been a possibility since the beginning of cinema. Technical problems and economic circumstances early on meant that it was not until the 1950s that color was viable in the film industry.

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Color internegative

Negative-image color duplicate made from a positive color original. Typically used for making release prints.

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Color management

Use of appropriate hardware, software, and procedures to achieve consistent color throughout the entire digital post-production pipeline.

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Color management

A system of coordinating and calibrating the color spaces of digital cameras, scanners, monitors and printers to ensure that the color and tonal values of the image you see on the screen match those in the final print image.

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Color management (print)

Techniques to maintain consistent color across various devices (e.g. camera, display, printer), making output of one as close as possible to others despite different color spaces (colors). Software designed to increase accuracy and consistency of color between devices.

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Color management (video)

Given a target medium for display, somewhere in the production process colors should appear the same as they will on the target. Color must be controlled using a defined process. For example, on production monitors colors can be measured and matched.

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Color matching system

System of software, displays, color wheels, color filters to help ensure printed colors are same as those on monitor.

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Color media

See Gel.

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Color model

Color description or language as defined by such systems as CMYK and RGB.

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Color negative

A negative (opposite) record of the original scene. Colors are complementary to the colors in the scene; light areas are dark, and dark areas are light.

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Color negative

When shooting in color film, the negative will show exact opposites of the original color. When printed to photographic paper, the negative becomes a positive and shows in full color on the print.

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Color negative film

Film that after processing has a color negative image. The most common film used.

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Color positive

A positive record of the original scene.

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Color print film

Film designed for making positive prints from color originals and color duplicates.

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Color reference

The eye/brain shifts an abnormal color scene (say blue light) toward normal (White Light). To minimize the shift, include a source of contrasting color (amber or red) so the eye has a color reference. See: Chromatic Adaptation.

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Color rendering index (cri)

A numeric evaluation of the accuracy (in relation to daylight at 100) of various types of light sources. Example: HMI is about 90.

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Color reproduction

Refers to the hue quality of rendered colors. This can include color accuracy (in memory colors or in various flesh tones), color preference, flesh-to-neutral reproduction, and tone-scale neutrality.

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79%

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Color resolution

Expressed in bits per pixel, total number of colors available.

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Color reversal

Color film that shows the actual color on film. This film cannot be printed through common darkroom techniques as it requires a negative to positive, but can be shown through a slide projector.

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Color reversal film

Film that after processing has a color positive image. Can be an original camera film or a film in which other positive films are printed.

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Color saturation

A term used to describe the brilliance or purity of a color. When colors present in a film image are projected at the proper screen brightness and without interference from stray light, the colors that appear bright, deep, rich, and undiluted are saturated.

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Color saturation

Color purity, with highly saturated colors delivering very narrow band of light wavelengths, mixed colors produce broader spectrum of frequencies. Good saturation will produce vibrant display.

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Color sensitivity

Portion of the spectrum to which a film is sensitive. The ability of the eye or photographic stock to respond to various wavelengths of light.

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Color separation

Technique of using hardware (camera, scanner, computer) to divide continuous-tone color images, graphics, text into four halftone negatives -- representing cyan, magenta, yellow, black -- in preparation for printing in separate layers. Also: the product of color separating and four-color process printing. Also: separation.

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Color separation negative

Black-and-white negative made from red, green, or blue light from an original subject or from positive color film.

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Color shift

Change in image color caused by register changes, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.

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Color shift

Color distortion or inaccuracy caused by problems with film or processing, White Balance or transfer, light sources, Reciprocity Failure, projection, or viewing sources, and, painfully, much more.

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Color sketch effect

A Special Effect available on certain Nikon D-SLR cameras. The camera detects and colors the outlines of subjects in the scene for a color sketch effect. When shooting D-movies in this mode, the video playback looks like a slide show made up of a series of still photos.

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Color space

The range of colors a system is able to reproduce. Digital intermediate work is typically done in the RGB color space.

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Color space

A mathematical model to specify, create and visualize color. Colors can be defined in different ways using different models. With video and computers, color is defined in terms of the excitations of red, green and blue phosphors on a screen or camera imager. Values may be converted from one color space to another, and may require a Look Up Table (LUT) for the translation. These LUTs are based on specific standards, such as SMPTE-C, SMPTE-240M, Rec-601-1, Rec-709, and Cineon.

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Color space

The range of colors that can be reproduced on a computer monitor or in print. The most commonly used color spaces for digital imaging are the baseline sRGB and wider-gamut Adobe RGB (1998).

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Color temperature

The color quality expressed in degrees Kelvin (K)-of the light source. The higher the color temperature, the bluer the light; the lower the temperature, the redder the light.

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Accuracy

Color temperature

A linear scale for measuring the color of ambient light with warm (yellow) light measured in lower numbers and cool (blue) light measured in higher numbers. Measured in terms of degrees Kelvin*, daylight (midday) is approximately 5600K, a candle is approximately 800K, an incandescent lamp is approximately 2800K, a photoflood lamp is 3200 to 3400K, and a midday blue sky is approximately 10,000K. For more on this subject, see the explora article, ://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-white-balance-and-color-temperature-digital-images Understanding White Balance and Color Temperature in Digital Images.*Named for engineer and physicist Lord Kelvin (William Thomson), who conceived of the thermodynamic temperature scale, in 1848.

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80%

Accuracy

Color temperature

Description of a light source measured in degrees Kelvin. Lights have different color temperatures: tungsten light is 3200 degrees K, daylight is about 5500 degrees K. Tungsten delivers a redder light, daylight is blue.

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81%

Accuracy

Color temperature

It is a measurement of the color of light, and important in that film is much more sensitive to color temperature than our eyes are. Is measured on scale that takes its name from the scientist Lord Kelvin.

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86%

Accuracy

Color temperature

Term that describes the color of light sources; literally, the temperature at which a blackbody emits enough radiant energy to evoke a color equivalent to that coming from a given light source. A high color temperature corresponds to bluer light, a low color temperature to yellow light. The color temperature of daylight is around 5500K.

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83%

Accuracy

Color temperature

A scale used for rating the color quality of light. Measured in degrees Kelvin (K). The temperature of daylight on a sunny day is expressed as 5500K; light from a tungsten lamp, 3200K to 3400K.

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88%

Accuracy

Color temperature, kelvin scal

Briefly: how red, blue and green the white light is. Films are white balanced by choosing the correct color-temperature source (daylight, about 5,600K; tungsten, usually 3,200K) or by filtering. Tip: Exotic, kinky-spectrum light sources are difficult to read accurately with portable color meters. Options once you determine the problem: use camera filters, Gel lights and/or windows; White Balance and/or filter a video camera, re-light with photographic sources, or opt for off-color scenes.

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96%

Accuracy

Color temperature:

A number, in degrees Kelvin, that tries to represent the approximate color of the light. Higher numbers are cooler, more blue. Lower numbers are warmer, more yellow or red. Also see white balance.

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99%

Accuracy

Color timing

A laboratory printing process whereby the negative is graded for color and density. A color timer uses a color analyzer to look at and adjust the colors of every scene in the movie. The analyzer has controls for each of the three primary colors: red, green and blue, and overall density.

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93%

Accuracy

Color timing

AKA: Color Correction, Color Timer, Color CorrectedA process which adjusts the final print so that colors match from shot to shot, regardless of the film stock and camera used to shoot the scene. So named because one aspect is adjusting the exposure time of each shot. Performed by a color timer. See also color consultant.

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77%

Accuracy

Color timing (a.k.a. grading)

To create a specific color balance, film in a lab is exposed for specific times by red, blue and green lights, altering the contrast of R, G and B. In the digital film process, gamma, hue, luminance, saturation as well as secondary color correction also can be applied.

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84%

Accuracy

Color tone

Menu setting defining preferred picture hue in captured images.

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85%

Accuracy

Color wheel

Series of cardboard or plastic cards held together (wire or bolt), with each card carrying different color and its identifier in particular color matching system. Useful for comparing color matching system color to color displayed on monitor or physical layout. Projector definition: Found on single imager light valve-based projection devices, rotating wheel with 3 or more translucent color filters displaying sequential color. Imager reflects/transmits color component of image when corresponding color filter of wheel affects light passing to lens. Cycle of 1X wheel through all colors is 1/60th sec.

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80%

Accuracy

Color balance

How a color film reproduces the colors of a scene. Color films are made to be exposed by light of a certain color quality such as daylight or tungsten. Color balance also refers to the reproduction of colors in color prints, which can be altered during the printing process.

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71%

Accuracy

Color depth

The number of colors that can be coded as digital values. A color channel coded on 8 bits can represent 256 different values.

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76%

Accuracy

Color filter array

A two-dimensional array of colored filters placed on top of a sensor that allow the color of the input light to be recorded. Each photosite outputs a value that depicts the light in a subset of the visible spectrum. The most-used color filter array is the Bayer array.

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73%

Accuracy

Color neutrality

Characteristic of a reflection or transmission material that does not change the spectrum (though the color) of the illuminant.

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Accuracy

Color print film:

Film designed to produce a color negative from which any number of color prints may be made.

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Color rendering

Process that transforms the color values of the captured scene into digital RGB values displayed on an output device (screen, printer). By extension, also designates the process that transforms raw sensor values into displayed RGB values.

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94%

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Color saturation:

The relative brilliance with which a film (or print) reproduces the subject s colors. Films that deliver more intense colors are said to have high saturation.

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94%

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Color sensitivity

Numerical values defined by DxO Labs researchers that represent the numbers of colors that a sensor can distinguish, up to noise. Read more.

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99%

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Color shading

Non-uniformity of color rendering in the field: an object may not have the same color all across the image field (see Vignetting).

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78%

Accuracy

Color space

Coordinate system representing the visible colors, under a given illuminant. The L* coordinate represents the luminance, while a* and b* represent color (respectively the green-magenta axis and the blue-yellow axis). The Lab color space was designed to be perceptually uniform, meaning that a same distance between two colors should be perceived as the same difference whatever those colors are.

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74%

Accuracy

Color temperature

Numerical value characterizing the radiation spectrum of a perfect black body. High color temperature leads to a bluish light, low color temperature leads to a reddish light.

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87%

Accuracy

Color palette

A palette is the set of available colors. For a given application, the palette may be only a subset of all the colors that can be physically displayed. For example, many computer systems can display 16 million unique colors, but a given program would use only 256 of them at a time if the display were in 256-color mode. The computer system s palette, therefore, would consist of the 16 million colors, but the program s palette would only contain the 256-color subset.

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